Industrial parks have historically represented one of the greatest strengths of the country’s innovation and production system. Their contribution is fundamental in terms of competitiveness, exports and value creation.
For sixty years, industrial estates have played an essential role in the innovation and competitiveness of the country. Knowing the activity and the role played by the industrial regions within the productive system makes it possible to understand the history of the large Italian groups but also how their virtuous model managed to position itself as a global reference that managed to withstand various crises and international economic upheavals.
In Italy there are 200 industrial regions with 280,000 companies and 2 million employees. Each region has specific characteristics such as mastery of one or more professions, technology, and infrastructure. Of the 516 billion exports in 2021, 133 billion were contributed by provinces, reaching a new all-time high. Of the Italian foreign trade surplus of €90 billion (excluding the cost of energy), 90% comes from companies affiliated with the industrial regions.
Central business model
The international crisis caused by the Covid19 pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine have profoundly changed the complex and uncertain macroeconomic scenario. Companies find themselves operating with volatile and high commodity prices that can endanger their economic and financial balance. At the same time, supply problems sparked by the pandemic and then amplified by the Russian invasion have led to the regionalization of global value chains across the continent. The regions, thanks to the centralization of production chains and structured supply chains, have been able to exploit their advantage in the innovation process. The proximity is only 116 kilometers wide, which is 24 kilometers less than the non-neighborhood areas. The average number of suppliers per company is 29 compared to 25 outside the region.
The contribution of the provinces to the country’s economy is such that certain industrial sectors have become a symbol of “Made in Italy” in the world, such as:
mechanical industry: The mechanical industry is the most important industry in the country. The second industry in Europe, after Germany, it contributes €242 billion to exports and a trade balance of €49 billion.
fashion industry: The first country in the world in terms of the number of companies, in 2021 the fashion sector will grow by 22.2%. The turnover amounted to 91.7 billion euros with a foreign trade balance of 33 billion.
Wood and furniture industry: Fifth in the world for the trade balance of wooden furniture. In 2021, the wood and furniture sector recorded a growth of 25.5%, its turnover amounted to 49.3 billion euros, and the foreign trade balance reached 8.2 billion.
Marine industry: A leading exporter of yachts and superyachts in the world. In 2021, 523 yachts under construction (51%) were built in Italy out of a total of 1,024 yachts ordered over 24 million worldwide. The turnover reached a new record of 6 billion euros, of which 3 billion came from exports.